Take a look at this FM transmitter diagram:

The process is relatively straightforward:
1) The microphone takes the voice in.
2) This voice signal goes into an audio processor in order to create an input signal.
3) The input signal is combined with a carrier frequency that is generated by the voltage controlled oscillator (V.C.O.).
4) The result is a signal that carries our information but is not sufficiently powerful enough to be transmitted up through an antenna. The signal is amplified through two different stages:
5) The exciter stage amplifies the signal power up one level of output.
6) The power amplifier drives it up to another power output level, now sufficient for the transmitter’s antenna.
See video

VE3WZW Andre

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